Spain differs from the rest of Europe in terms of its diverse population structure and close relations with non-European civilizations.
Medieval Spain exhibited a unique history in which Christian, Muslim and Jewish communities coexisted. At the same time, centuries of conflict between Christian and Islamic political forces had inevitably driven both sides to religious extremism. The religious identity of the triumphant Christian kingdom at the end of the Middle Ages permeated every aspect of life in Spain. Traces of religious identity and opposition to it still exist today, and the history of Spain cannot be understood without taking this point into account.
At the beginning of the modern period, first the Habsburg dynasty and then the Bourbons ruled this world's first global empire. In this process, the Spanish bureaucracy had to deal with problems that arose all over the world. These were harbingers of the new challenges that globalization would bring. By 1650, Spain lost its dominant power position in Europe to its rivals, but the empire remained in the 19th century. It managed to survive until the turn of the century. The traces of Spain's being a global power in the past continue to form the colors of Spanish political life even today.
How many cities are there in the world that you say “you will come here once again”? San Sebastian, lying in the shape of a half oyster on the coast of the Bay of Biscay in northern Spain, is one of the few cities that I say “I go to many times”. Especially if it’s spring, especially if the weather has started to get warmer, the 6-kilometer Phantom beach has become lively with people doing sports and sunbathing, and the people have started to overflow from the pintxo bars…